### 稻草人（strawman）

Misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack.


（Easy）
A：“我认为不应该让儿童在大街上乱跑。”
B：“把小孩关起来，不让他们呼吸新鲜空气，那真是太愚蠢了。”

（Hard)
A：“有件事我忘记跟你说了，你上星期推荐的 J.Fla 的歌我感觉一般般啊，而且我朋友也觉得不是很好听。”
B：“没事呀，每个人喜好不一样，不用特别跟我讲这些。”
A：“不用这么大反应吧，我又不是要让你也认同我的观点，我也知道每个人喜好不一样呀。”

A 把“不用特别跟我讲这些”曲解成 B 在表达不接受 A 的说服，然而“说话”不代表“说服”，“不用特别跟我讲这些”不能直接推出“不用来说服我”。

### 因果谬误（false cause）

Presuming that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other.


### 诉诸情感（appeal to emotion）

Manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument.


### 谬误论证（the fallacy fallacy）

Presuming that because a claim has been poorly argued, or a fallacy has been made, that the claim itself must be wrong.


### 滑坡谬误（Slippery slope）

Asserting that if we allow A to happen, then Z will consequently happen too, therefore A should not happen.


Attacking your opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument.


“你又不是XXXX爱好者，也不了解我们的乐趣，你有什么资格批评！”
“你是石油公司的员工，为了利益，你当然会质疑全球暖化！”
“别理他，他是个反动派。”

### 诉诸虚伪（appeal to hypocrisy）

Avoiding having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser - answering criticism with criticism.


“你自己都下载盗版音乐，凭什么说别人下载就是错的？”

### 个人怀疑（personal incredulity）

Saying that because one finds something difficult to understand that it's therefore not true.


Moving the goalposts or making up exceptions when a claim is shown to be false.


Asking a question that has a presumption built into it so that it can't be answered without appearing guilty.


### 举证责任（burden of proof）

Saying that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove.


### 语言歧义（ambiguity）

Using double meanings or ambiguities of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth.


### 赌徒谬误（the gambler’s fallacy）

Believing that 'runs' occur to statistically independent phenomena such as roulette wheel spins.


### 诉诸群众/乐队花车（bandwagon）

Appealing to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation.


### 诉诸权威（appeal to authority）

Saying that because an authority thinks something, it must therefore be true.


### 以偏概全、以全概偏（composition/division）

Assuming that what's true about one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it.


### 诉诸纯洁/没有真正的苏格兰人（no true scotsman）

Making what could be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws of an argument.


### 起源谬误（genetic）

Judging something good or bad on the basis of where it comes from, or from whom it comes.


### 非黑即白(black-or-white)

Where two alternative states are presented as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist.


“整天吃”和“不吃”只是两个极端，中间还有适度进食的可能。

### 窃取论点（begging the question）

A circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the premise.


### 诉诸自然（appeal to nature）

Making the argument that because something is 'natural' it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, good, or ideal.


### 轶事谬误（anecdotal）

Using personal experience or an isolated example instead of a valid argument, especially to dismiss statistics.


### 德州神枪手谬误（the texas sharpshooter）

Cherry-picking data clusters to suit an argument, or finding a pattern to fit a presumption.


### 诉诸中庸（middle ground）

Saying that a compromise, or middle point, between two extremes is the truth.